jueves, marzo 22, 2007

TECH: Development of Clean Combustion Processes with CO2 Capture:

An Overview of the Oxy-Fuel Combustion
Program and Test Facility at CANMET
by K. E. Zanganeh
Zero-Emission Technologies Group Clean Electric Power Generation (CEPG)

Combustion Processes with CO2Capture

Oxy-Fuel Opportunities and Challenges


  • Produces a highly concentrated stream of CO2, ready for capture and storage
  • With pure O2combustion, the exit flue gas volume may be reduced to 1/5th of air-fired combustion
  • Offers excellent opportunities for integrated emissions control through reduced flue gas flow
  • Eliminates the need for downstream NOxControl
  • Cost of oxygen production
  • Lack of commercial demonstration
  • Need for advanced materials for oxygen-fired combustion

CO2Capture & Storage (CCS)
  • CCS could provide a bridge to our energy future in a carbon-constrained energy economy
  • The Western Canada Sedimentary Basinprovides a unique opportunity for storage of CO2

Towards Zero-Emission Technologies

  • A climate change response option and a part of a sustainable development strategy

Ensuring Zero-Emission Technologies Become a Reality

Oxy-Fuel Combustion Program at CANMET
Program Components:
  • CETC Oxy-Fuel/CO2Research Consortium
  • Near Zero-Emission Oxy-Fuel Combustion
  • CO2Compression Unit
  • Multi-Pollutant Control Technologies
  • Modeling of Advanced Near-Zero Emission Cycles (including supercritical and ultra-supercritical power plant with CO2capture)
CETC Oxy-Fuel/CO2Research Consortium

To develop oxy-fuel combustion technologies for improved efficiency and capture of CO2
from flue gas streams:
  • Oxy-Fuel Burner development
  • Boiler performance simulation
  • Multi-pollutant capture and integration
  • Advanced process and cycle development
  • Field demonstration of oxy-fuel combustion
  • CO2capture and compression unit development

Status: Program started in 1994 and is currently in Phase 9
Funding: About $1M (Cnd.) per year
Ontario Power Generation, SaskPower) Governments of Canada Government of Alberta though AERI Babcock and Wilcox US Dept. of Energy

Activities:focused on 1st generation oxy-fuel combustion systems and other enabling technologies
  • Performed extensive experimental investigations using coal, coalslurry, bitumen and natural gas
  • Studied the characteristics of oxy-fuel combustion with flue gas recirculation (FGR)
  • Investigated oxy-fuel Brayton/Rankinecycles
  • Performed solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) modeling to explore potential for integration of fuel cell operating on syngas (H2 & CO)
  • Conducted multi-pollutant capture research in the condensing environment for integrated removal of fine particulates, SOx and Hg

Outcomes: A unique knowledge database and a set of tools to facilitate the implementation of oxy-fuel technology with CO 2 capture
  • Simulation and test results show that 1st generation oxy-fuel technology can be retrofitted to the existing coal-fired power plants
  • Retrofit requires some modifications to the boiler system, but this leads to improved performance and lower NOx emissions

New Directions: Activities now target advanced (2nd and 3rd generation) oxy-fuel combustion units for
Minimizing recycle flow
Better integrated emission control technology Zero emission gas turbine cycles

Zero-Emission Oxy-Fuel Combustion
Status: Project started in 2003 and currently in the 4thyear
Funding: Secured government funding of $2.3M (Cnd) for 5 years (2003 to 2008), with additional industry leverage
Technology areas: zero-emission oxy-fuel combustion technologies
  • Moving towards the 2ndand 3rdgeneration of oxy-fuel combustion systems for power generation with CO2 capture
  • CO2capture and compression performance testing & optimization
3rdGeneration Oxy-Fuel Combustion Systems
Hydroxy Burner Prototype
• Firing rate: 0.3MWth (1MMBtu/hr)
• Fuels:
  1. Natural gas
  2. Oil
  3. Emulsion
  4. Pulverized coal and coal slurry
Operational modes
  1. O2/steam
  2. O2/RFG
  3. O2/CO2
  4. Air
  5. Enriched air
  6. O2/steam/RFG
  7. O2/steam/CO2
• Variable secondary & tertiary stream mass flow rates
• Variable secondary & tertiary steam oxygen concentration
• Independent secondary & tertiary stream swirl

Prototype Design

First Generation:ed-Angle Swirl Generator

Second Generation:Variable-Angle Swirl Generator

Hydroxy Burner Anatomy

Pilot-Scale Testing at CETC
Vertical Combustor Research Facility (VCRF)

Features & Capabilities (VCRF)
• Highly modular and flexible state-of-the-art air-and oxy-fired facility
• Has a nominal thermal output of about 0.3 MW
• NG, coal, coal slurry, oil and bitumen can be burned in a controlled environment
• Can be used to develop novel integrated multi-pollutant control technologies, including NOx,
SOx, Hg and CO2capture
• Equipped with advanced process monitoring and control systems

VCRF Pilot Plant Overview

Vertical Combustor

Continuous Emission Monitors (CEMs)

Advance Flame Imaging System (AFIS)


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